By Halyna Mokrushyna, New Cold War.org, July 15, 2016
An all-Ukrainian cross procession for peace, initiated by the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate -MP), is taking place in Ukraine. Many thousands of people have joined the procession in the polarized regions of eastern and western Ukraine in an expression of peace, civil reconciliation and an end to the civil war that has wracked eastern Ukraine. The procession started from two opposite parts of Ukraine. In the East, processioners departed from the Holy Assumption Sviatohirsk Lavra in Donetsk region (approximately 150 km to the north of Donetsk city) on July 3. On July 9, another procession started in Western Ukraine, from the Holy Assumption Pochaiv Lavra in Ternopil region. The two processions will meet in Kyiv on July 26, 2016. They will join on Vladimir Hill and will walk together to Holy Assumption Kyiv-Pecherska Lavra, where solemn masses will be held.
A lavra is a monastery of the highest rank in the Eastern Orthodox Church. There are three lavras in Ukraine, belonging to the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (MP). That is why this cross procession is highly symbolic and will unite Ukraine – pilgrims from the east and from the west will walk through all Ukraine, congregating in Kyiv, the heart of Ukraine.
Cross processions of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (MP) have been held in Ukraine every year, to commemorate the baptism of Kievan Rus by Grand Prince Vladimir (Volodymyr in Ukrainian) in the year 988. To avoid frictions between believers belonging to the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate and Kyiv Patriarchate, Kyiv city authorities decided to split celebrations in Kyiv into two days – on July 27 Orthodox parishioners of Moscow Patriarchate walk in procession through Kyiv, and the next day, on July 28, the parishioners of Kyiv Patriarchate do it.
The Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Kyiv Patriarchate emerged in 1992 as the result of a schism within Ukrainian Orthodox Church. This was an effort to create an independent, truly ‘Ukrainian’ Orthodox church. Prior to 1992, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church existed within the Moscow Patriarchate as a self-governing church with the rights of wide autonomy, which it preserves today. The Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Kyiv Patriarchate is headed by Patriarch Filaret, a former Metropolitan of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church. In 1995, he proclaimed himself “Patriarch of Kyiv and of all Rus-Ukraine”. In 1997 he was excommunicated from the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchate for his schismatic actions.
According to the 2011 data of the Ministry of Culture of Ukraine, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) remains the largest in Ukraine. It has 12,340 parishes, 191 monasteries and employs 9,922 clerics. By contrast, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Kyiv Patriarchate has 4,482 parishes, 49 monasteries and 3,088 clerics. It is not recognized as a canonic church.
Since the beginning of civil war in eastern Ukraine in April 2014, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchate took a neutral position, not taking sides and serving the needs of parishioners on both sides of the conflict. Many experts believe that the church of the Moscow Patriarchate is one of few institutions which could preserve Ukraine as a country. Because of its pacifist position, the church has been harshly criticized by ‘patriotic’ Ukrainian politicians and public figures for being an ‘agent’ of Kremlin, an outpost of Russian aggression in Ukraine.
The primate of the Church His Beatitude Metropolitan Onufriy, has addressed the faithful by saying that the most that the Orthodox Church can do is to call for peace and to intensify prayers for peace to be granted to the Ukrainian land, something that the Church has being doing since the beginning of the armed conflict in Eastern Ukraine. The primate noted that in spite of the peace-making mission of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, there are forces within Ukraine that try to portray the Church as inimical to Ukrainian society. An inter-confessional war is being ignited in the peaceful part of Ukraine, provocateurs direct their actions against clergy and parishioners and provocations have being made against the Ukrainian Orthodox Church as a whole. A unifying force of prayer of believers can work miracles, so every Christian should make a conscious effort to participate in the procession. Contemplation alone is not enough, said the primate. Who can walk – walks, who can walk only it their locality, join the procession, who can feed pilgrims – it is also your participation in the great common cause. The all-Ukrainian cross procession is a procession of peace, love and prayer for Ukraine, stated Metropolitan Onufriy.
The Union of Orthodox Journalists reports that over 10,000 people started the procession on July 9, 2016 from Pochaiv Lavra in Western Ukraine. Video can be seen here. Around 1,000 people started the procession from Sviatohirsk Lavra on July 3. Video can be seen here.
On July 10, the cross procession from the east reached Kharkiv, Ukraine’s second largest city. Over 10,000 people walked through the streets of the city wearing icons. Old, men, women with little kids and babies walk for peace in Ukraine.
Some Euromaidan ‘activists’ have stated that this cross procession is a “huge provocation” by the Russian FSB (security police) and that authorities should check all who participate in this procession. Euromaidan activists have also been discussing the need to disperse this “biological mass”.
The head of the Information Department of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Kyiv Patriarchate, archbishop Evstratiy on his page on Facebook on July 11, after reading many posts on Facebook, noted that Ukrainians are afraid of the cross procession because they perceive it as a procession of the “Russian world” to Kyiv and may end up as a large anti-Maidan protest. The Archbishop came to a decision that the cross procession should be allowed to continue, but some precautionary measures should be taken so as to not play into the Kremlin’s hands. For instance, any “Russian, monarchic, or separatist’ symbols, such as Saint-George ribbon (symbol of Soviet victory in WWII) or a portrait of tsar Nicolai II, should be videotaped or photographed and reported to the police; participants in the procession should be verified whether they are Russian citizens or have connections with ‘separatists’.
The current speaker of the Ukrainian Parliament, Andriy Parubiy, a co-founder in the 1990s of the neo-Nazi party Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, stated that he knows for sure about a “scenario” that the Kremlin has prepared for July 27 in Kyiv, when the cross procession will reach the city. An expert on Ukrainian religious matters, speaking in a TV program, stated that by organizing the cross procession, the ‘Moscow church” wants to demonstrate its force and influence in Ukraine.
The head of the Ministry of Interior, Arsen Avakov, commented that the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchate has a right to do this cross procession as long as it does not threaten others. He added that Ukrainian security forces will ensure peace and security during the procession and warned radical nationalist forces to avoid any attempts to violently disrupt the procession.
The Ukrainian state news agency Ukrinform has published opinions of several Ukrainian experts summarized in the telling title: “Cross procession of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchate – a mass Russian provocation. What our answer will be?”.
A leading Ukrainian newspaper, Dzerkalo Tyzhnia, reports on the procession making frequent use of the term “Moscow Patriarchate” to stress the fact that the Ukrainian Orthodox Church is ruled from Moscow. The newspaper also places the word “procession” in quotation marks. Ukrainska Pravda, the main media outlet of Euromaidan, also resorts to quotation marks when republishing reports from the cross procession in Kharkiv. Anton Herashchenko, the deputy of Verkhovna Rada, an advisor to the head of the Ministry of Interior, called upon Ukrainian media to ignore the whole event because, in his opinion, media coverage will draw unnecessary attention to the procession and will transform it from a simple action into a big event.
Herashchenko, like other so-called Ukrainian experts, believes that the cross procession was planned in Moscow. He called it a “pop-parade”, the Russian word “pop” being a pejorative word for an Orthodox priest. In Herashchenko’s opinion, Moscow curators and organizers of the cross procession hope that Ukrainian patriotic forces will react to the procession violently, and as a result Russian media will be able to show to the whole world how the rights of Orthodox believers are violated in Ukraine.
In Herashchenko’s posts on Facebook, there is not a single word about the genuine intentions of the leadership of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (MP) in organizing this cross procession, which is to make a collective prayer for peace and love. By calling it a “Kremlin provocation”, Herashchenko and others like him are fomenting interfaith hatred in Ukraine, which needs words of reconciliation, not war.
The extraordinary cross procession is a prayer for peace by thousands of common Ukrainians who want to put an end to a fratricidal war. In Ukraine, where the Euromaidan political elite embraced right-wing nationalism as its official ideology, it is up to ordinary Ukrainians to reunite a country, torn by civil war. Thousands of Ukrainians are walking for peace. Let us hope their prayers will be heard.
This article also appears in CounterPunch on July 15, 2016.
Halyna Mokrushyna is currently enrolled in the PhD program in Sociology at the University of Ottawa and a part-time professor. She holds a doctorate in linguistics and MA degree in communication. Her academic interests include: transitional justice; collective memory; ethnic studies; dissent movement in Ukraine; history of Ukraine; sociological thought. Her doctoral project deals with the memory of Stalinist purges in Ukraine. In the summer of 2013 she travelled to Lviv, Kyiv, Kharkiv and Donetsk to conduct her field research. She is currently working on completing her thesis. She can be reached at [email protected]
Nationalists attempt to interfere with All-Ukraine sacred procession, Interfax Religion, July 13, 2016
MOSCOW – The All-Ukraine Orthodox procession, which is heading from the direction of Donbass, from the Svyatogorsk Monastery, came under attack of radicals from Right Sector, an extremist organization banned in Russia.
As the website of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate reported, a total of 20 nationalists marched in a parallel to the Christians and interrupted the prayer for peace with shouts and insults. Moreover, the far-right extremists drove in constant close proximity to the sacred procession.
The nationalists marched parallel to the procession holding red and black banners. According to witnesses, the radicals shouted slogans, alternating them with obscenities addressed towards the participants in the procession.
The participants in the procession were filmed and threatened. Some of the nationalists attempted to break through the procession to the sacred relics, but were prevented from doing so.
The All-Ukraine sacred procession with the prayer for peace in Ukraine started in the east of the country from the Svyatogorsk Monastery on July 3, and in the west of the country from the Pochaev Monastery on July 9. The participants in both processions will meet in Kiev at St. Vladimir Hill and will walk together to the Kiev Pechersk Laura, where a ceremonial service will be held on July 27, the eve of the celebration of Christianization of the Kievan Rus Day.
As reported, Ukrainian Verkhovnaya Rada Chairman Andrey Paruby said recently that among the participants in the sacred procession are not only civilians, but also provocateurs with banned symbols, and that the event itself will be used by the Kremlin for provocations on the streets of Kiev on July 26.
In turn, Metropolitan Onufry of Kiev and All Ukraine made a stand against the attempts to divide the Ukrainian citizens into ‘patriots’ and ‘separatists.’
For his part, Vakhtang Kipshidze, deputy head of the Synodal Department for Church, Society and Media Relations, told Interfax-Religion that the attempts to use against the All-Ukraine sacred procession “political horror stories may be made only by those people who never participated in sacred processions and hold notions of the life of the canonical Ukrainian Orthodox Church based on the fantasies understood only by themselves.”